Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench by Albrecht Dürer and five copies after it in the collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow.
by Magdalena Łanuszka
The article presents a print by Albrecht Dürer and five copies after it in the collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow, which is the most valuable collection of old graphics in Poland, yet still not very well-known to the foreign scholars. Dürer's Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench and the copies after it from this particular collection are briefly discussed in the article – mostly in their background and iconography. However the latter consists of rather well-known motifs (Nursing Madonna, Grassy Bench, Enclosed Garden, Dog, Hares etc.), it still seems worth to collect them together in reference to those prints, to present both Dürer's original concept as well as the field of interest of his followers who chose to copy that particular engraving.
European Art
16th Century
17th Century
Dürer
Northern Renaissance
Iconography
Copy
Forgery
Printmaking
The subject of prints by and copies after Albrecht Dürer has been discussed by many scholars – yet there still are some less popular examples among those prints that have not attracted a lot of academic attention. It seems that one of them may be the Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench and the copies after it – their iconography may not be very complex, yet deserves to be at least shortly summarised.1 This article will present the prints of that group in the collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow.2 The PAAS collection, in large part never published before, is now being digitalised and made available through the on-line service PAUart.3
The print collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences (PAAS) is now incorporated into the structure of the Scientific Library of the PAAS and Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in Cracow – the latter was formed in 1953, aimed to replace PAAS, which was eventually reactivated after 1989. Today the Print Room of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences is the most valuable collection of old graphics in Poland, in the number of over 98,000 prints. The Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow was created in 1872, as a result of the transformation of previous scholarly society, established in 1815. The creation of the Print Room at the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences is associated with the history of the Bibliothèque Polonaise de Paris [Polish Library in Paris] established by Polish political emigrants (the nobility that had to escape suppression after the fall of so called November Uprising) on November 24th 1838. In 1893 the Polish Library in Paris was taken over by the Academy of Arts and Sciences, which took under its care the collection of books and various gifts that had flowed for many years to the Library. One of the gifts was a legacy of senator-governor Maciej Wodziński (1782-1848), who bequeathed around 45,000 loose old prints and albums. The collection of the Polish Library in Paris was subsequently complemented after the World War I by the purchase of 14,000 valuable engravings belonging to the aristocratic Moszyński family. During the World War II the collection was confiscated by the Nazis and deposited in the basement of the Wawel Royal Castle in Cracow, where, apart from some minor losses, it luckily survived. It was later enriched by the prints from the collections from Wrocław, Berlin and Zgorzelec, abandoned by the Nazis and eventually taken under the care of the Print Room at the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow. Albrecht Dürer's oeuvre is represented here by more than 300 woodcuts, engravings and etchings, of varying provenance, and in different condition4. Among them there is also Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench and five copies after it.
The original engraving of Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench by Albrecht Dürer (B.34, based on a preparatory drawing W.290) is among the earliest Dürer's engravings that bear a date; it is monogrammed and dated 15035 (fig. 1).
Figure 1: Albrecht Dürer, Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench (1503), engraving, 114 x 70,5 cm, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow, inv. no. BGR.007019.
The authorship is generally accepted, although there had been a suggestion that this print is a forgery.6 As the date 1503 is very prominently displayed on a tablet above Virgin's head, it has been proposed that the print may have been intended as a design of a New Year's greeting card, especially considering the fact that the image of Virgin nursing Child fits well to the Christmas time.7 The image of Madonna on a Grassy Bench derives from the depictions of Virgin in the Enclosed Garden – the motif developed since the early fifteenth century in German and Netherlandish art.8 This image was undoubtedly popularised by the print B.30 by Martin Schongauer, created probably in the 1470s.9 Dürer himself used the motif of a grassy bench many times, the examples of which are his prints B.44 (Holy Family with the Butterfly, 1495-96), B.71 (Virgin and Child with Monkey, c. 1498), B.102 (Holy Family with Three Hares, 1497-98, ) and B.43 (Holy Family, 1512-13). He also drew a few versions of Madonna with a Multitude of Animals, which depict Virgin and Child on a grassy bench as well, surrounded by various animals (drawings in Vienna, Graphishe Sammlung Albertina, Inv. 3066 [D.50], Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Inv.KdZ 15387 [W.295] and Paris, Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Inv. 18.603 [W.297]).10
It should be noted that the depictions of a garden have been traditionally associated with the aspects of love. Undoubtedly an important factor for that idea was the popularity of the thirteenth century poem 'Roman de la Rose', which uses the concept of enclosed Garden of Delight in the allegory of courtly love.11 The depictions of Garden of Love (in a secular meaning) became popular especially in the fifteenth century, mainly in engravings and manuscript miniatures12 and it also included the representations of the grassy benches.13 In fact, the pair of lovers seated on a grassy bench was quite a popular subject of German prints of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; one of the best-known examples would be the engraving by Master E.S. (L.211).14 The images of Virgin with Child often bore the allusions to the relationship between the lovers, due to the concept that Virgin Mary, however she was a mother of Jesus, also symbolised the Church (Ecclesia).The Church on the other hand was often compared to the mystical Bride of Christ, and their mutual relation was supposed to be mirrored in the Biblical Song of Songs.15 This interpretation refers to many depictions of Jesus Child embracing his mother, or in particular touching her chin, as that gesture had been understood as a symbol of the physical relation between lovers (it is an ancient tradition and was mostly popular in the representations of Cupid and Psyche).16 It seems likely that also the depiction of Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench could be interpreted this way – especially as the Song of Songs actually compares the Bride to the enclosed garden (Hortus conclusus soror mea, sponsa, hortus conclusus, fons signatus – Song 4.12). Of course both metaphors used in this verse ("Closed Garden" and "Sealed Fountain") have been understood as references to the closed and immaculate womb of Virgin Mary.17 In the fifteenth century numerous images of Virgin Mary in Hortus Conclusus were created, and many of them contained the grassy benches, which were actual elements of the medieval gardens.18
Another aspect of the Dürer's print analysed here is that it contains the depiction of Nursing Madonna (Madonna Lactans), that is Virgin suckling her Child. The type appeared in Christian art already in the Early Middle Ages and in fact it may even have derived from the ancient depictions, as Egyptian Isis lactans19 (in Byzantine art the type was known as Galaktotrophousa20). The Nursing Madonna was especially popular in the late gothic art north from the Alps, at least to the sixteenth century: it was introduced to the images of the Enthroned Madonna, and commonly used in devotional half-figure depictions. This type stresses the human nature of Jesus and also presents the divine motherhood of Virgin Mary as her contribution to the salvation of the world. Additionally, since the eleventh century it could have been understood as depicting Virgin Mary as The New Eve, which also corresponds with placing her in the garden-like environment.21
Apart from the original Dürer's print of Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench the collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences also contains five engraved copies after it, created by various artists in various times. It is a well-known fact, that the fame of the late-Medieval and early-Modern artists was very often reflected in the amount of copies created after their masterpieces; creating a copy was mainly considered as a sign of respect or homage. Sometimes those copies were extremely faithful, so it may be even difficult to tell the difference between them and the originals. Famous masterpieces have been copied all around the Europe, although it must be stressed that creating very faithful copies of popular images was especially characteristic for the Northern art.22 The bibliography of Dürer consists of over 11,000 publications23 and there are no doubts that he is the most famous artist of the Northern Renaissance, extremely popular already during his lifetime and in the following centuries. Around 1500 Albrecht Dürer had already been referred to as 'another Apelles'; he was praised in the texts by such authors as Conrad Celtis or Erasmus of Rotterdam.24 The comparison to Apelles is in this case not only a rhetoric reference to the ancient painter; it points to what was particularly valued in Dürer's work: the skill of imitating nature, which was highly appreciated especially in Italy. Interestingly, Albrecht Dürer could have been one of the first artists concerned about his copyright; his prints had been copied already during his lifetime, which apparently he did not like. In a letter to Pirckheimer Dürer complained about Italian artists forging his work. It seems that it was using his monogram that upset him the most and was considered a forgery – he was such a famous artist that his signature simply increased the value of an artwork.25 Finally he managed to achieve an imperial privilege from Emperor Maximilian I, which forbade to copy Dürer's prints and to sell them.26 Nevertheless, for the following centuries Dürer was probably the most copied artist – not only his prints were reproduced, but his art was also imitated in painting and other media (even in the ones Dürer himself never used) as sculpture, ceramics or metalwork.27
Albrecht Dürer's prints were copied for various reasons – forgery was only one of them. More often those copies served as reproductions; engravers often included their own monogram in the copy, or the actual date of creating it, so those prints did not pretend to be genuine Dürer's works. Albrecht Dürer's prints were also frequently used in the training process in the printmakers' workshops: copying Dürer was simply the way to learn engraving.28 Not only copies, but also pastiches were created, putting together details from different Dürer's prints.29It seems that the interest in Dürer's art increased throughout the sixteenth century and culminated in the seventeenth century. In fact there is even a term "Dürer-Renaissance"30 which refers to the peak of Dürer's popularity around 1600. Undoubtedly it was related to the fact that well-known Dürer's collectors of that time were the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612) as well as the Dukes of Bavaria William V (1548-1626) and Maximilian I (1573-1651); therefore Dürer's prints were very popular at their courts in Prague and in Munich, respectively.31 There was actually a rivalry between Maximilian I and Rudolf II, as each of them tried to acquire more original Dürer's works than the other.32 Central-European appreciation of Dürer's work in the first half of the seventeenth century is reflected in various written sources; for example Hans Hieronymus Imhoff (1569-1629), great-grandson of Willibald Pirckheimer, noted in 1634 that Dürer's signature was added to drawings to achieve higher price. Interest towards the past in Northern Europe at the beginning of the seventeenth century was on he other hand reflected by the development of the historical writing.33 Additionally, the beginning of the seventeenth century was the time of the popularity of traditional Gothic forms in the Central-European architecture: it was so called "Postgothic", or "Baroque Gothic". The use of those Gothic forms, however not limited to Central Europe, was especially popular in Bohemian and Moravian architecture and also present in German churches of that time.34 It is usually interpreted as rooted in the interest in local cultural history and tradition, as well as linked to the Counter-Reformation. In any case, it seems interesting that apparently around the same time there was a revival of both late gothic architecture (in Central Europe flourishing at the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) and Dürer's art, in many aspects preserving late gothic stylistic and iconographical traditions.
The five copies after Dürer present in the collection of PAAS have not yet been a subject of a single publication; in general, some of those prints have only been mentioned in the catalogues as The Illustrated Bartsch, with no additional analysis. Two of the copies in PAAS, inv. BGR.000199 and BGR.037341(figs. 2-3) were created by Jan Wierix in 1566 in Antwerp. These copies35 were previously ascribed to Hieronymus Wierix, but later the attribution was changed to his older brother, Jan. Wierix brothers Jan (1549-1618) and Hieronymus (1553-1619) created around 50 copies after Dürer's prints in their youth, most likely in the course of their education.36 Both prints in PAAS collection are quite faithful copies that include Dürer's monogram, but the original date 1503 was replaced by 1566. Both of them have very indistinctive inscriptions in their lower right corners. The inscriptions surely contain ligatured 'AE' and most probably a number, which seems to be 17, although it has also been interpreted as 16.37 It seems very probable, as Mr Krzysztof Krużel proposed, that this inscription refers to the age of the engraver (AE stands for Ætatis) – if that is the case, 17 fits to Jan Wierix, who was of that age in 1566. The print BGR.000199 has a verso stamp of PAU collection as it came from The Polish Library in Paris. The print BGR.037341 additionally contains a monogram (CIV.ex.) that proves that the print was published by Claes Jansz Visscher. This print has more verso stamps: one of baron Hans Albrecht von Derschau, a Nuremberg collector who died in 1824 (Lugt 2510),38 and the other of the Royal Academy of Arts Library at Berlin. The latter contains inscription 'Bibliothek d.K.A.d.K' in a rectangle frame with rounded edges – it was used in the second half of the nineteenth century.39 The print BGR.037341 used to be a part of the collection acquired from Berlin after the World War II.
Another copy of the same Dürer's print (no. BGR.000070) is a reversed version that contains both monogram and date 1503 copied after the original (fig. 4). The
Figure 4: Anonymous artist after Albrecht Dürer, Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench (16th century?), engraving, 119 x 73 cm, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow, inv. no. BGR. 000070.
additions are the hatching in the sky area and a verse "Lacte paruo pascitur/ Per quem nec ales / esurit" by the fence to the right edge of the print. It is a paraphrase of a line from "A solis ortus cardine", a hymn written by Coelius Sedulius (died c. 450) and used for Lauds during the Christmas season (parvoque lacte pastus est per quem nec ales esurit). The print's author and date of creation remain unknown,40 it is generally assumed to date back to the sixteenth century. As the image is framed and contains a verse from a hymn, I suspect it may have been an illustration for some kind of book of prayers or a devotional text; the image's size is 11.9 by 7.3 cm. This print also comes from The Polish Library in Paris, which is proved by the pencil note in the upper left corner, containing the inventory number 3959. There are no verso stamps on this engraving.
Finally there are also two prints probably published by Peter Overadt: possibly earlier BGR.000052 (fig. 5)
Figure 5: Anonymous artist (published by Peter Overadt) after Albrecht Dürer, Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench (early 17th century?), engraving. 198 x 132 cm, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow, inv. no. BGR. 000052.
and presumably later BGR.037340 (fig. 6).41
Figure 6: Anonymous artist (published by Peter Overadt) after Albrecht Dürer, Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench after Albrecht Dürer (early 17th century?), engraving, 205 x 133 cm, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow, inv. no. BGR. 037340.
They are the very interesting examples of how Dürer's prints were altered and pastisched in later copies: in this case various elements were added, although the engraving still bears the Dürer's monogram and a date 1503. There is a mountain landscape in the background with a silhouette of a city or castle to the right and some rocks to the left (there is actually a mountain goat visible on the top of one of the peaks). Additionally, there are a dog and a pair of hares in the foreground. Most likely both prints were created in Cologne, probably at the beginning of the seventeenth century. BGR.000052 comes from The Polish Library in Paris; it has been cut and is now of a size 19.8 by 13.2 cm. BGR.037340, on the other hand, measures 20.5 by 13.3 cm and bears the inscription "Pet. Ouerrdt excu.". It also has verso stamps the same as BGR.037341 (of baron Hans Albrecht von Derschau and of the Royal Academy of Arts Library at Berlin), as this print comes from Berlin as well.
Peter Overadt was born probably c.1565; his family may have come from Overath, a village near Cologne. He could have been born in Cologne, as he was never listed as a new citizen of the city and he lived and worked there until his death in 1652.42 Most probably Overadt was only a publisher, not an engraver; he did not print books though. His workshop was at the address Unter 16 Heusern, and his first known publication was Raising of Lazarus by Isaak Duchemin (1590). It should be noted that Peter Overadt was Roman-Catholic and therefore he was engaged in publishing religious prints popular in post-Tridentine period. However, he is also known to have printed 9 maps and 3 urban panoramas43. It seems that the additions introduced in the copies after Dürer published by Overadt were supposed to stress the aspects related to the veneration of Virgin Mary, widely promoted in the Counter-Reformation circles. Hares and dog can simply refer to Mary's virtues: her purity and virginity, as well as her faithfulness and wisdom.
It is actually quite rare to combine the image of Virgin with Child with a depiction of a dog. In general a dog was understood as a symbol of fidelity and faithfulness. According to medieval bestiaries, dogs are the smartest of all the animals,44 so it could be associated with Virgin Mary and the Divine Wisdom. The dog was rather more likely to appear in the marriage portrait (as a symbol of fidelity), which may bring us back to the symbolism related to the Mystical Bride from Song of Songs, mentioned above. On the other hand, perhaps it is not a coincidence that the dog in the prints in question resembles a lion – that could lead us to the reference to the medieval images of Virgin with the lion, interpreted as the symbol of Divine Wisdom again (in reference to the Biblical description of the throne of Solomon, decorated with the depictions of lions).45 Also the iconography of hares is often explained in reference to the Old Testament (Psalms 104:18 and Proverbs 30:26), which is in fact not entirely correct, as in both cases the verse in original text refers to shafan, that is a hyrax.46 However, in case of medieval and early modern western European art we should stick to the Latin translation – in fact, this animal is translated in Vulgate as "hedgehog" in Psalm 104 (montes excelsi cervis petra refugium ericiis) and in Proverbs as "hare" (lepusculus plebs invalida quae conlocat in petra cubile suum)47. The Physiologus, probably in reference to the Greek translation of the Psalms, stated that a rabbit in danger seeks safety by climbing high up rocky cliffs, and it was understood as an advise for human soul to seek salvation climbing up towards God. In the medieval bestiaries the entry about a hare was a short one: it explained that its Latin name "lepus" derived from "levipes" ("light-footed") and that symbolically a hare refers to a person that fears God.48 Hares' and rabbits' symbolism is not distinguished, as both animals since the ancient times referred to the concepts of fertility and sexuality. Juxtaposing them with Virgin Mary was supposed to stress her purity and victory over lust49. There was also a belief that rabbits were hermaphrodites that could reproduce without sexual intercourse, which could have been used as a reference to the virgin motherhood of Mary. The fact is that hares or rabbits occurred in some depictions of Virgin and Child on a Grassy Bench, for example in Albrecht Dürer's Holy Family with Three Hares (fig. 7).
Figure 7: Albrecht Dürer, Holy Family with Three Hares (c.1497), engraving, 395 x 285 cm, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, Cracow, inv. no. BGR.000151.
The three hares were actually a separate medieval motif usually interpreted as the symbol of the Holy Trinity.50Finally, it should be noted that most probably also the additions in the background in the discussed Overadt's prints are not just decorative motifs, but bear the symbolic meaning. The mountain goat to the left is actually a scapegoat, depicted in almost identical way in the Dürer's print of Adam and Eve (1504, B.1). It refers to the future sacrifice of Christ and as a result to the salvation of the world; therefore the castle-city to the right may be interpreted as the silhouette view of the New Jerusalem.51
The copies after the works of famous artists are usually considered to be less interesting from the originals, just as their price is much lower. However, we should not underestimate the value of those copies, as they are not only the testimony of the popular artist's appreciation even after his death, but often they reflect the significance of certain motifs throughout the centuries. In case of prints after Albrecht Dürer discussed above, it seems that various factors may have been the reasons for their creation. The copies made by young Jan Wierix showed mostly the appreciation of the famous Albrecht Dürer's skills; by completing a copy Wierix both learned and proved his own abilities in engraving. It is difficult to discover the creator's motivation behind the undated copy that contains a line from a hymn; it is likely though that in this case the old prayer was juxtaposed with a traditional devotional image, which reflects the 'historical' interest in Dürer that culminated around the beginning of the seventeenth century in so called 'Dürer-Renaissance'. And finally two prints published by Overadt, altered by adding the background and animals in the foreground, prove that Dürer was considered as a good source of inspiration for the Roman-Catholic artists of the Counter-Reformation. It could also have been related to the use of late gothic heritage by the post-Tridentine Catholic Church.52 In all of the cases of the prints discussed above it was crucial to stress that the author of the original was actually Albrecht Dürer, as all of those copies contain his famous monogram. Today they are valuable elements of the collection of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cracow, already available on-line through the service PAUart.
Endnotes
1 The iconography of the depictions of Virgin Mary nursing Child (and as the matter of fact also of the other motifs mentioned in this article) is all together a very broad subject that could be described with wide references concerning various studies on medieval and early-modern art, which would not be possible within the range of the text suitable for a short article. The purpose of this text is rather to present a group of prints from the PAAS collection and to gather together most important aspects of their iconography, even if it consists of rather well-known and popular motifs. As a result, I decided to make only short single references to most of the information collected in this article – in most cases the cited literature contain further references on each subject.
2 I would like to thank Mr Krzysztof Krużel, Head of the Print Room at Scientific Library of the PAAS and PAS in Cracow, for his valuable comments and research advice, and Mrs Joanna M. Dziewulska, Head of the Special Collection Department of the Scientific Library of the PAAS and PAS in Cracow and PAUart Project Manager, for her kind support of my study while preparing this article.
3 http://pauart.pl. The aim of the PAUart project is to provide wide audience with scientific and artistic iconographic collections stored in the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences (PAAS). Starting from 2014, successive digitisation and scientific study will cover graphics collection of the Print Room and photographs from the Special Collections of the Scientific Library of the PAAS and the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS) in Cracow as well as photographs from Lanckoronski Phototheca of the PAAS and from the Archives of Science of the PAS and of the PAAS in Cracow. In the long term the project involves digitisation of the whole collection. The number of the items gathered in the collection is now estimated at about 240,000. The reproductions of the artworks are in the public domain and the PAAS decided to provide a high-resolution photos for academic purposes (including scholarly publications) free of any charge. Searching the on-line collection will be soon facilitated for the foreign scholars by the implementation of Iconclass codes to each print.
4 Krzysztof Krużel, "The Print Collection of the Polish Academy of Sciences", Print Quarterly, XI:2 (1994): 158-166.
5 The Complete Engravings, Etchings and Drypoints of AlbrechtDürer, edited by W. L. Strauss, New York, 1973, p. 80, no. 39.
6 Sylvester Rosa Koehler, Catalogue of the Exhibition of Albrecht Dürer's Engravings, Etchings and Dry-Points, and most of the Woodcuts Executed from His Designs (Boston: Printed for the Museum by A. Mudge & son,1888), no. 28.
7 Walter L. Strauss, ed. The Illustrated Bartsch, Volume 10, Formerly volume 7 (Part I), Sixteenth Century German Artists: Albrecht Dürer (New York: Abaris Books, 1980), 83, no.034.
8 Remigius Bäumer and Leo Scheffczyk, eds. Marienlexikon, Volume 3 (St. Ottilien: Eos, 1991), 247-250.
9 Sophie Renouard de Bussière, Martin Schongauer: maître de la gravure rhénane, vers 1450-1491: Musée du Petit Palais, 14 novembre 1991-16 février 1992 [exh. cat] (Paris: Paris-museés, 1991), 148, no. 23.
10 Fritz Koreny, Albrecht Dürer and the Animal and Plant Studies of the Renaissance (Boston:Little, Brown, 1988) 114-118, no. 35.
11 Christine McWebb, ed. Debating the Roman de la Rose: A Critical Anthology (New York: Routledge, 2007), 315-317.
12 See Roberta Smith Favis, The garden of love in fifteenth century Netherlandish and German engravings: some studies in secular iconography in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance (PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1974).
13 Robert G. Calkins, "Piero de'Crescenzi and the Medieval Garden", in: Medieval Gardens, edited by Elisabeth Blair MacDougall (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9, 1986), 166.
14 Janez Höffler, Der Meister E.S.Ein Kapitel europäischer Kunst des 15. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg: Schnell & Steiner,2007), vol. I, p. 108.
15 Dorothee von Burgsdorff, "Hoheslied" in: Lexikon der Christlichen Ikonographie, Volume 2 edited by Engelbert Kirschbaum (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder Verlag, 1970), 308-312.
16 Leo Steinberg, The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion (Chicago: Pantheon Books, 1983), 110-118.
17 Brian E. Daley, "The 'Closed Garden' and the 'Sealed Fountain': Song of Songs 4:12 in the Late Medieval Iconography of Mary", in: Medieval Gardens, edited by Elisabeth Blair MacDougall (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 9, 1986), 253-278.
18 Sylvia Landsberg, The Medieval Garden (Toronto: University of Toronto Press 2003), 51.
19 Sabrina Higgins, "Divine Mothers: The Influence of Isis on the Virgin Mary in Egyptian Lactans-Iconography", Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies, 3-4 (2012), 71-90.
20 Anthony Cutler, "The Cult of the Galaktotrophousa in Byzantium and Italy", Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik, 37 (1987), 335-350. Nursing Madonna in the fourteenth century Italian art was sometimes combined with the type called Madonna dell'Umilita (Virgin of Humility, sitting directly on the ground).
21 Bäumer, Scheffczyk, Marienlexikon, 701-702.
22 Hélène Mund, "Approche d’une terminologie relative à l’étude de la copie", Annales d’histoire de l’art et d’archéologie de l’Université libre de Bruxelles, 5 (1983), 19-31.
23 See Matthias Mende, Dürer-Bibliographie zur Fünfhundertsten wiederkehr des Geburtstages von Albrecht Dürer (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1971); Jane Campbell Hutchison, Albrecht Dürer: a guide to research (New York: Garland, 2000).
24 Andrea Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer: The Appropriation of Art, 1528-1700, Burlington: Ashgate, 2013 14.
25 Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer, 89-90.
26 Christopher Witcombe, Copyright in the Renaissance: Prints and the Privilegio in Sixteenth-Century Venice and Rome (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 83; Imperial Privilege for Albrecht Dürer, Nuremberg (1511) in: Lionel Bently and Martin Kretschmer, eds. Primary Sources on Copyright (1450-1900), www.copyrighthistory.org [31.07.2016].
27 Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer, 4, 98-103.
28 Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer, 91.
29 See Dürer Through Other Eyes:His Graphic Work Mirrored in Copies and Forgeries of Three Centuries: an Exhibition Prepared by Students in the Williams College-Clark Art Institute Graduate Program in Art History, March 14 to June 15, 1975 (Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 1975). A recent study on the issue of the copies after Dürer's prints, which includes analysis of various aspects of that phenomenon, is a book by Christine Vogt Das druckgraphische Bild nach Vorlagen Albrecht Dürers (1471 - 1528): zum Phänomen der graphischen Kopie (Reproduktion) zu Lebzeiten Dürers nördlich der Alpen, Munich, 2008.
30 See Gisela Goldberg and Barbara Heine, Dürer-Renaissance, [ex. cat.] (Munich: Munich: Alte Pinakothek 1971).
31 Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer, 39-74.
32 Gisela Goldberg, "Zur Ausprägung der Dürer-Renaissance in München", Münchner Jahrbuch der Bildenden Kunst, 3/31 (1980), 129-175; Eliška Fučíková, "Umělci na dvoře Rudolfa II. a jejích vztah k tvorbě Albrechta Dürera", Umění 20 (1972), 149-166.
33 Dorothy Limouze, "Aegidius Sadeler, Imperial Printmaker", Bulletin of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, 85/362 (1989), 7; see also Thomas DaCosta Kaufmann, "Hermeneutics and the History of Art: Remarks on the Reception of Dürer in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries", in: New Perspectives on the Art of Renaissance Nuremberg, edited by Jeffrey Chipps Smith (Austin: Archer M. Huntington Gallery, 1985), 22-39.
34 Pavel Kalina, "In opere gotico unicus: The Hybrid Architecture of Jan Blažej Santini-Aichl and Patterns of Memory in Post-Reformation Bohemia", Umění, 58 (2010), 42-56.
35 Listed in Strauss, The Illustrated Bartsch, 83-84 as .034 C1. See Marie Mauquoy-Hendrickx, Les estampes des Wierix conservées au cabinet des estampes de la Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, vol. 1: Ancien Testament, Nouveau Testament, Dieu le Père, le Christ, Le Saint-Esprit, les Anges et la Vierge (Bruxelles: Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier, 1978), 131, no. 728.
36 Bubenik, Reframing Albrecht Dürer, 91-92.
37 Joseph Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht Dürer's, Nuremberg: Kunz, 1827 414, no. 565;Strauss, The Illustrated Bartsch, 83.
38 Frits Lugt, Les marques de collections de dessins & d'estampes, http://www.marquesdecollections.fr/ [31.07.2016]
39 Ingrid Hägele, Gudrun Schmidt and Gudrun Schneider, eds. Kriegsverluste der Preußischen Akademie der Künste: Kunstsammlung und Archiv (Berlin: Akademie der Künste, 2005), 192.
40 Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht Dürer's,415, no. 569;Strauss, The Illustrated Bartsch,p. 84, no. C6.
41 Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht Dürer's,414, no. 568;Strauss, The Illustrated Bartsch, p. 84, no. C5.
42 Johann Jacob Merlo, Kölnische Künstler in alter und neuer Zeit. Neu bearbeitete und erweiterte Nachrichten von dem Leben und den Werken kölnischer Künstler, edited by Eduard Firmenich-Richartz and Hermann Keussen, Düsseldorf: L. Schwann, 1895 (reprint Nieuwkoop: de Graff, 1966), 639-640; Bernardette Schöller, ed. Kölner Druckgraphic der Gegenreformation. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte religiöser Bildpropaganda zur Zeit der Glaubenskämpfe mit einem Katalog der Einblattdrucke des Verlages Johann Bussemacher, (Cologne:Kölnisches Stadtmuseum,1992), 39.
43 Peter Meurer, "The Cologne Map Publisher Peter Overadt (fl. 1590-1652)", Imago Mundi, 53 (2001), 30-33.
44 WilleneClark, A Medieval Book of Beasts: The Second-family Bestiary: Commentary, Art, Text and Translation (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2006),145.
45 See Peter Bloch, "Die Muttergottes auf dem Löwen", Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen, 12 (1970), 253-294.
46 That is why the New International Version translates the lines in question as 'The high mountains belong to the wild goats; the crags are a refuge for the hyrax' (Psalm 104:18) and 'hyraxes are creatures of little power, yet they make their home in the crags' (Proverbs 30:26). The erroneous reference to the hares occurs probably due to the fact that ancient Syrian and some Greek translations (e.g. in Codex Alexandrinus) used 'hares' instead of hyrax; the King James Bible therefore uses the word 'conies'.
47 Ilya Dines, "The Textual and Pictorial Metamorphoses of the Animal called 'Chyrogrillius'" in: Science Translated: Latin and Vernacular Translations of Scientific Treatises in Medieval Europe, edited by Michèle Goyens, Pieter De. Leemans, and An Smets (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2008), 74-77.
48 Richard Jones, The Medieval Natural World (Harlow: Pearson, 2013), 76.
49 Hope B. Werness, The Continuum Encyclopedia of Animal Symbolism in World Art (New York: Continuum, 2006), 340.
50 Erhard Ueckerman, "Das Hasensymbol am Dom zu Paderborn, im Kloster Hardehausen, in der Kathedralkirche St. Paulus in Münster und der Klosterkirche Haina",Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft,41 (1995), 285-291. It seems that the running hare in the print published by Overadt was actually inspired by a relevant element from Dürer's Holy Family with Three Hares.
51 See Ann R. Meyer, Medieval Allegory and the Building of the New Jerusalem (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2003). It should be stressed here that there is another example of a copy after Dürer's print with the background altered comparing to the original, published by Overadt: it is Nemesis (The Large Fortune), reversed and having a changed landscape underneath the figure. See Dürer Through Other Eyes, 48-49, no. 29. The print published by Overadt in the first half of the seventeenth century is based on the engraving by Dürer of ca. 1502 (Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Albrecht Dürer's,843).
52 In Cologne (where Overadt worked) another example of such a historical approach would be the Jesuit Church of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (St. Mariä Himmelfahrt, built between 1618 and 1678) designed in Postgothic forms by Christoph Wamser (c. 1575-1649).
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Magdalena Łanuszka
Ph.D., Art History, Jagiellonian University

Magdalena Łanuszka, PhD, is an art historian, working as an academic lecturer mainly in Cracow, Poland (Jagiellonian University). As a researcher she worked in the National Inventory Research Project, examining pre-1900 European paintings in the collection of York Art Gallery. Most recently she has joined the team of PAUart project (digitalisation of prints from Print Room of Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, http://www.pauart.pl/). Personal website containing her CV is http://en.posztukiwania.pl/cv/

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